Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Kenyan Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

Main Article Content

Ebrahim Sande
Danstone Lilechi Baraza
Selline Ooko
Nyongesa Peter Kuloba
Lilian Shiyenzi

Abstract

Aim: To screen the Kenyan Ganoderma lucidum for phytochemicals and to investigate it's potential in the management of some disease-causing microbes.


Study Design: Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extraction; phytochemical study and anti-microbial activities were analysed on Kenyan G. lucidum mushroom.


Place and Duration of Study: Masinde Muliro University Science laboratories from January 2019 and March 2019.


Methodology: Sequential extraction of dried samples was done using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The crude extracts were assayed against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Creptococcus neoformans using agar well diffusion method. Ampicillin and nystatin were respectively used as controls for bacteria and fungi. Zones of inhibition measured signified the antimicrobial activity.


Results: The following group of compounds were present in the mushroom; terpenoids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides and polyoses. Hexane and methanol extracts showed significant activity at (P= 0.022) against MRSA while ethyl acetate extract was active against Streptococcus pyogenes (P=0.05).


Conclusion: Kenyan Ganoderma lucidum contains terpenoids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, glycosides, flavonoids and phytosterols. Crude extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) were active against MRSA and Streptococcus pyogenes.

Keywords:
Ganoderma lucidum, phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial

Article Details

How to Cite
Sande, E., Baraza, D. L., Ooko, S., Kuloba, N. P., & Shiyenzi, L. (2019). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Kenyan Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 6(2), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2019/v6i218994
Section
Original Research Article

References

Boh B, Berovic M, Zhang J, Zhi-Bin L. Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceuti-cally active compounds. Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 2007;13:265-301.

Zhou X, Lin J, Yin Y, Zhao J, Sun X, Tang K. Ganodermataceae: Natural products and their related pharmacological functions. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2007;35:559-74.

Wasser SP. The importance of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from ancient times to the present. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 2005;7:375-376.

Ji Z, Tang Q, Zhang J, Yang Y, Jia W, Pan Y. Immunomodulation of RAW264.7 macrophages by GLIS, a proteopoly-saccharide from Ganoderma lucidum. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:445-450.

McKenna DJ, Jones K, Hughes K. Reishi botanical medicines. The desk reference for major herbal supplements, 2nd Ed., The Haworth Herbal Press: New York, London, Oxford. 2002;825–855.

Gao B, Yang G. Effect of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharides on cellular humoral immunity in normal and sarcoma 180 transplanted mice. Phytopathological Research. 1991;5:134-138.

Boh B.Ganoderma lucidum: A potential for biotechnological production of anti-cancer and immunomodulatory drugs. Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2013;8(3):255- 87.

Chen RY, Yu DQ. Studies on the triterpenoid constituents of the spores of Ganoderma lucidum Karst. J. Chine Pharm. Sci. 1993;2(2):91-96.

Min BS, Gao JJ, Hattori M. Anticomple-ment activity of triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Planta Med. 2001;67:811-814.

Zhang CR, Yang SP, Yue JM. Sterols and triterpenoids from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Nat. Prod. Res. 2008;22(13):137-1142.

Min BS, Gao JJ, Nakamura N, Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their cytotoxicity against meth- A and LLC tumor cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998; 48(7):1026-1033.

Chen RY, Yu DQ. Applications of 2D NMR techniques in the structure determination of ganosporelactone A and B. Acta Pharm Sin. 1991;26(6):430-436.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: A guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. 4thEd. London: Charpan and Hall; 1998.

Krishnaveni G, Sailaja O, Kumar KK. Phytochemical screening and quantitative analysis of hexane, acetone, methanol and water extracts of Salicornia virginica by UV-spectrophotometry. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 2016;8(16):52-56.

Kavit M, Patel BN, Jain BK. Phytochemical analysis of leaf extract of Phyllanthus fraternus. Research. Journal of Recent Sciences. 2013;2:12-15.

Wadood A, Ghufran M, Jamal SB, Naeem M, Khan A. Ghafar R. Asnad. Phyto-chemical analysis of medicinal plants occuring in local area of Madan. Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry. 2013;2:144.

Yadav RNS, Aggarwala M, Phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. Journal of Phytology. 2011;3(12):10-14.

Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK, Methods for in vitro evaluating anti-microbial activity: A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis; 2015.

Nwachukwu NC, Iheukwumere I, Ekeleme E. Antibacterial effects of the mushroom Termitomyces letestui on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Academic Journal of Science, University Publications.net. 2017;07(02).

[ISSN: 2165-6282]

Sonja Veljović, Mile Veljović, Ninoslav Nikićević, Saša Despotović, Siniša Radulović, Miomir Nikšić, Lana Filipović. Chemical composition, anti proliferative and antioxidant activity of differently processed Ganoderma lucidum ethanol extracts. J Food Sci Technol. 2017;1312–1320.