Determination of Some Heavy Metals (Cu, Co, Ni) in Edible Clay from South Eastern Nigeria and Its Effect Due to Consumption

Main Article Content

C. M. Ekuma
T. C. Ogunyemi

Abstract

Determination of heavy metal contents in edible clay (kaolin) from Enyigba in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State of Nigeria was carried out using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The quantitative analysis of heavy metal analyzed in the edible clay sample were 0.012 mg/kg for Co, 0.113 mg/kg for Cu and 0.712 mg/kg for Ni. This study shows that the levels of these heavy metals (Co, Cu and Ni) in kaolin are below the permissible limits as established by the regulatory organization (World Health Organization, WHO). Compared to the safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals (EVM), and Agency for toxic substance and disease Registry (ATSDR), the dietary intakes of the three heavy metals from daily consumption of 20 g of kaolin should pose no health risk to human.

Keywords:
Heavy metal, kaolin, consumption.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekuma, C. M., & Ogunyemi, T. C. (2019). Determination of Some Heavy Metals (Cu, Co, Ni) in Edible Clay from South Eastern Nigeria and Its Effect Due to Consumption. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 6(2), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2019/v6i218995
Section
Original Research Article

References

Grim RE. Clay mineralogy. McGraw-Hill, London; 1953.

Kerr PF. Formation and occurrence of clay minerals. Clays and Clay Minerals. 1952;1(1):19–32. DOI:10.1346/CCMN.1952.0010104.

Enviromedica. Eating clay: Lessons and Medicine from Worldwide Cultures; 2018.
Available:https://www.environmedica.com/wellness/eating-clay-lessons-on-medicine-from-worldwide-cultures

Wiley AS, Solomon HK. Geophagy in pregnancy: A test of a hypothesis. Current Anthropology. 1998;39(4):532-545.

WHO: Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Health criteria and other supporting information. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland. 1996;2.

Bowman NC, Rand MJ. Textbook of pharmacology 2nd edition. 1980;241-261.

Ogah SPI, Ikelle II. The determination of the amount of some heavy metals in edible clay of Enyigba village in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Der Pharma Chemica. 2015;7(11):264-267.

Ema MA, Daniel AM, Ndidialmaka NE. Mapping geological structures controlling mineralization in Enyigba Area, South Eastern Nigeria, using magnetic Inversion Technique. International Journal of Mining Science (IJMS). 2018;4(3):31-39.

Graham GG, Cordano. A copper deficiency in human health and disease. 1984;35: 245-254.

Sturgeon P, Boubaker C. Copper deficiency in infants. Jouranal of Syndromes Characterized by Hypocuremia, Iron Deficiency and Hypoprotenemia. 1956;92(3):254—265.

Zaigham Hassan, Zubair A, Khalid Usman K, Maxhar J, Rizwan Ullan K, Jabar Zaman KK (2012): Civic pollution and its effect on water quality of Rivers Toi at Districk Kohat, NWFP. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Science. 2012; 4:5.

FAO/WHO. List of maximum levels recommended for contaminant by the Joint FAO/WHO, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2nd Edn. FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy. 1984;1-8.

Ruqia Nazir, Muslim K, Muhammad M, Hameed Ur R, Nareed Ur R, surrya Shahab, Nosheen A, Muhammad S, Mohib U, Muhammade R, Zeenat S. Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water an plants and analysis of physio-chemical parameter of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam Kohat. 2015;7(3):89-97.

Naobo Paulinus N. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of water sources from Enyigba Pb-Zn District, South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology Research. 2015;4(4).

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Chlorinated drinking water; chlorinating by-products; some other halogenated compounds; cobalt and cobalt compounds.IARC, Lyon, France. 1991;52.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cobalt. ATSDR report no. TP-91/10, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, US Public Health Service, Atlanta (Georgia), USA; 1992.

Vermeire TG, Apeldoorn ME van, Fouw JC de, Janssen PJCM. Voorstel voor de humaan-toxicologische onderbouwing van C-toetsingswaarden. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, RIVM-report no. 725201005, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; 1991.

IPCS. Environmental Health Criteria 200 - Copper. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 1998.

RIVM. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, RIVM-report no. 725201005; Bilthoven, The Netherlands; 1991.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chromium, nickel and welding. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. 1990;49.

Devi P, Bajala V, Garg VK, Mor S, Ravindra K. Heavymetal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;188:86.
DOI 10.1007/s10661-015-5078-1

Anonymous. List of contaminants and their maximum levels in foods, Part II., Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation (Unpublished FAO document, CAC/Vol. X–VII. Ed. 1, Available from FAO or WHO); 1984.

Anonymous. Report of the twenty-fifty session of codex committee on food additives and contaminants, the Hague, The Netherlands and Agricultural Organization of United Nation (Unpublished FAO document, Alinorm 93/12 A; 1993.
Available from FAO or WHO

Anonymous. Proposed draft codex general standard for contaminants and toxins in foods, Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nation (Unpublished FAO document, agenda item 13(b), CX/ FAC 95/12; 1994.
Available from FAO or WHO

Expert group on vitamins and minerals. Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals. Report of the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. Food Standards Agency; 2003.
ISBN 1-904026-11-7.

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Summary and conclusions of the 61st meeting of the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. JECFA/61/SC, Rome, Italy; 2003.

Baars AJ, Theelen RMC, Janseen PJCM, Hesse JM, van Apeldom ME, Meijerink MCM, verdam L, Zeilmaker MJ. Re-evolution of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment; 2001.