Phytochemical Study and Biological Activities of Two Medicinal Plants used in Burkina Faso: Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae)

Main Article Content

Dramane Pare
Jotham Yhi-pênê N’do
Samson Guenne
Mahamadi Nikiema
Adama Hilou

Abstract

Background: Bacterial infections are at the origin of a number of serious pathologies, including meningitis, bronchopneumopathies, typhoid fever and especially diarrhea, which are still a real public health problem for the child population in developing countries. In most of these countries, people use medicinal plants for primary health care. The objective of this study was to determine the content of phenolic compounds, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts from two plants used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso, Lannea velutina and Ximenia americana.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry (LABIOCA).

Methods: The total phenolics and flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract extracts were determined by spectrometric assay. The DPPH and FRAP method were used to measure the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The antibacterial potential was determined on five bacterial strains.

Results: The ethanolic extracts of Lannea velutina showed the best polyphenol content with 969.67±8.23 ​​mgGAE/g extract against 753.145917±66.31 mgGAE/g extract for Ximenia americana. On the DPPH radical Ximenia americana gave the best activity with a percentage inhibition of 62.32±0.17% compared to Lannea velutina. This species also gave the best reducing activity with a reducing capacity of 3.45±0.97 mmol EAA/10 g of extract. Shigella dysenteria and Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to Lannea velutina and Ximenia americana with inhibition diameters greater than 8 mm.

Conclusion: These results showed that the extract has good antioxidant potential as well as antimicrobial activity. These extracts could be used to prevent damage from oxidative stress and infections.

Keywords:
Antibacterial, antioxidant, medicinal plants, phenolic compounds.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pare, D., N’do, J. Y.- pênê, Guenne, S., Nikiema, M., & Hilou, A. (2019). Phytochemical Study and Biological Activities of Two Medicinal Plants used in Burkina Faso: Lannea velutina A. Rich (Anacardiaceae) and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae). Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 6(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2019/v6i318997
Section
Original Research Article

References

Bérubé-Gagnon J. Isolation et identification de composés antibiotiques des écorces de Picea mariana. Mémoire de l’université de Québec. 2006:76. French.

Coulibaly F. Infections bacteriennes invasives dans le service de pediatrie du chu-gabriel toure. (A propos de 341 cas.), these pharmacie, Université de Bamako. 2007:103. French.

Alexander VI, Birke B, Maria GI. Oxidative Stress in Infection and Consequent Disease, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017;3:3.
[ID 3496043]

Ouologuem T. Etude de l’activité larvicide de quelques plantes médicinales du Mali sur les larves de Anopheles gambiae s.s et Culex quinquefaciatus, Thèse de Doctorat en Pharmacie, FMPOS, Bamako (Mali). 1999:88. French.

Diallo D, Marston A, Terreaux C, Touré Y, Paulsen BS, Hostettmann K. Screening of malian medicinal plants for antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. Phytother Res. 2001;15(5):401-6.

KONE JP. Etude de 5 plantes utilisées par les tradipraticiens de santé Bwa de la commune I du district de Bamako pour le traitement traditionnel du diabète, Thèse de Pharmacie, Université des sciences, des techniques et des technologies de Bamako. 2017:137. French.

Francisco JQM, Telma LG, Monica RS, Edilane SG. Ximenia americana: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Biological Properties, a Review. Phytochemicals. 2010;20:430-450.

Kabran GRM. Phenols et flavonoïdes totaux dans les extraits organiques de dix plantes utilisées dans la traditherapie du cancer du sein en Côte d’Ivoire. European journal of scientific research. 2012;68(2):182-190. French.

Nacoulma OG. Plantes médicinales et pratiques médicales traditionnelles au Burkina Faso. Cas du plateau central. Thèse d’état. Université de Ouagadougou, Tome I. 1996;320. French.

Soro TY, Néné-bi AS, Zahoui OS, Yapi A, Traoré F. Activité anti-inflammatoire de l’extrait aqueux de Ximenia americana (Linné) (Olacaceae). Journal of Animal &Plant Sciences. 2015;24(3):3802-3813. French.

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalceu Reagent. Methods in Enzymology. 1999;299:152-178.

Arvouet-Grand A, Vennat B, Pourrat A, Legret P. Standardisation d’un extrait de propolis et identification des principaux constituants. J. de Pharm. de Belgique. 1994;49(6):462-468. French.

Velasquez E, Tournier HA, mordichovch de buschhizzo P, Saavedra G, Schinella GR. Antioxydant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts. Fitoterapia. 2003;74:91-97.

Hinneburg I, Damien-Dordan HJ, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant activities of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chemistry. 2006;97(1):122-129.

Lennette HE, Bellows A, Hausler JW, shadomy HJ. Manual of Clinical microbiology, 4th. 1987;336-359.

Mihin HB, Somda MK, Kabore D, Sanon S, Akakpo AY, Alfred S. Traore AS and al. biopreservation of meat by using antimicrobial proprieties of essential oil from laggera aurita in Burkina Faso. Advances in Nutrition and Food science. 2019;02:13.

Rhayour K. Etude du mécanisme de l’action bactéricide des huiles essentielles sur Esherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis et sur Mycobacterium phlei et Mycobacterium fortuitum. Thèse de doctorat. Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Maroc. 2002; 170. French.

Negreiros MO, Pawlowski A, Soares GLG, Motta AS, Frazzon AP. In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Heterothalamus Less. (Asteraceae) against clinically relevant bacterial and fungal species. Brazilian Journal of Biosciences. 2016;14(1):26–31.

Ouattara L, Koudou J, Zongo C, Barro N, Savadogo A, Bassole IHN, al. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three species of lannea from Burkina Faso. Journal of Applied Sciences. 2011;11:157-162.

Middlleton E, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC. The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cell: Implications for inflammation, heart disease and cancer. Pharmacological Reviews. 2000;52:673-751.

Ksouri R, Megdiche W, Falleh H, Trabelsi N, Boulaaba M, Smaoui A, and al. Influence of biological, environmental and technical factors on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Tunisian halophytes. Compte Rendu de Biologies. 2008;331:865–873.

Pierini R, Gee JM, Belshaw NJ, Johnson IT. Flavonoids and intestinal cancers. Br J Nutr. 2008;99:153-59.

ANSES-France, (Agence nationale de la sécurité sanitaire), 2001. Staphylococcus aureus et entérotoxines staphy-lococciques.
Available:https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/MIC2011sa0117Fi.pdf French

ANSES-France. (Agence nationale de la sécurité sanitaire), Bacillus cereus ; 2001. Available:https://www.anses.fr/fr/system/files/MIC2011sa0116Fi.pdf. French

Kwang-il J, Quanshun Z, John N, Saul Tzipori. A piglet model of acute gastro-enteritis induced by Shigella dysenteriae type. J Infect Dis. 2010;201(6):903–911.

Latha M, Ramkumar KM, Pari L, Damodaran PN, Rajeshkannan V, Suresh T. Phytochemical and antimicrobial study of an antidiabetic plant: Scoparia dulcis L. J Med Food. 2006;9(3):391-394.

Haioun A, Hamoudi FZ. Activité antioxydante et anti-inflammatoire de la plante médicinale Algérienne Anethium graveolens et leur effet cardioprotectrice contre la toxicité de la doxorubicine, Mémoire Master, Université des Frères Mentouri Constantine, ALGERIE. 2015 ; 105. French.

Ghedria K. Les flavonoides structure, proprieties biologiques, role prophylactique et employs thérapeutiques. Phytothérapie. 2005;4:162-169. French

Walid EA, Hassan MA, Mona MA. HPLC analysis of quercetin and antimicrobial activity of comparative methanol extracts of Shinus molle L. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2015;4(11):550-558.

Noura B, Rawaa A, Ghalia S. In vitro antibacterial activity of genistein and quercetin against escherichia coli isolated from clinical samples. Innovare Journal of Life Sciences. 2016;4(4):5-8.

Valdiléia TU, Cleyton MMS, Adonias AC, Antônio EGSA, MHC. Free radical scaven-ging ability of Ximenia americana L. stem bark and leaf extracts. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 2016;6(02):091-096.