Main Article Content
Background: The adsorptive removal of anionic dye (Bromocresol green) from aqueous solution was investigated using activated carbon prepared from rice husk.
Place of Study: The research work took place at Nnamdi Azikiwe Univeristy Awka, Nigeria.
Methods: The rice husk which was obtained from rice mills in Awka was activated with tetraoxophosphoric acid and carbonized in a furnace. The adsorption process was investigated by varying the contact time, temperature, dosage, pH and initial concentration in a batch process. Five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Halsay and Harkin-Jura) were employed in the equilibrium studies. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the adsorption were carried out.
Results: The result indicated that increase in contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature increased the percent uptake of the Bromocresol green dye. Maximum percentage adsorption of about 93% was obtained. Langmuir and Harkin-Jura isotherm models best described the equilibrium data of the adsorption process. Pseudo second-order kinetic model best correlates the kinetics of the experimental data. The thermodynamic study showed that the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were –2.541 kJ/mol, -7.401 kJ/mol and –15.52 kJ/mol K respectively.
Conclusion: This work has shown that activated carbon prepared from rice husk can be used in adsorptive removal of bromocresol green dye from solution and that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic.
Farida MSE, El-Dars, Hamed MI, Heba AB, Farag M, Zakaria A. Using bentonite carbon composite material for adsorption of bromocresol purple and methylene blue. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2015;6(10):188-197.
Sharma YC, Singh B, Uma, C. Fast removal of malachite green by adsorption on rice husk activated carbon. The Open Environmental Pollution and Toxicology Journal. 2009;1:74-78.
Dunya EAM. Removal of brilliant green dye from aqueous solution by adsorption onto modified clay. Ibn Al-Haitham Journal for Pure & Application Science. 2013; 26(2):206–219.
Nwabanne JT, Okpe EC, Igbokwe PK, Asadu CC, Onu CE. Isotherm and kinetic modeling of adsorption of dyestuffs onto kola nut (Cola acuminata) shell activated carbon. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 2016;51(2):188–201.
Nwabanne JT, Okpe EC, Asadu CC, Onu CE. Sorption studies of dyestuffs on low cost adsorbent. Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences. 2018;5(3):1–19
Mohammad H, Hanafy H, Hassan H. Remediation of lead by pretreated red algae: adsorption isotherm, kinetic, column modeling and simulation studies, Green Chemistry Letters and Reviews. 2014; 7(4):342-358.
Foo K, Hameed B. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: A superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2009;172:523-531.
Okpe EC, Asadu CC, Onu CE. Statistical analysis for orange G adsorption using kola nut shell activated carbon. Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society. 2018;1–15.
Oguanobi NC, Onu CE, Onukwuli OD. Adsorption of a dye (crystal violet) on an acid modified non-conventional adsorbent. Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy. 2019;54(1):95–110.
Bello O, Fatona T, Falaye F, Osuolale O, Njoku V. Adsorption of eosin dye from aqueous solution using groundnut hull-based activated carbon: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies. Environmental Engineering Science. 2012; 29:186-194.
Iheanacho CO, Nwabanne JT, Onu CE. Optimum process parameters for activated carbon production from rice husk for phenol adsorption. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2019; 36(6):1-11.
Ekpete OA, Horsfall JM. Kinetic sorption study of phenol onto activated carbon derived from fluted pumpkin stem waste. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied science. 2011;6(6):43-49.
Marwa FE, Hassan SH, Wael AA, Eslam S, Hamed A, Essam RS. Novel magnetic zinc oxide nanotubes for phenol adsorption: Mechanism Modeling. MDPI Materials. 2017;10:1–12.
Bazrafshan E, Amirian P, Mahvi AH, Ansari-Moghaddam A. Application of adsorption process for phenolic compounds removal from aqueous environments: A systematic review. Global Nest Journal. 2016;18(1):146-163.
Magda AA, Magda BD, Asmaa AS. Efficient removal of phenol from water samples using sugarcane bagasse based activated carbon. Journal of Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques. 2014;5(2):1-12.
Sivakumar P, Palanisamy PN. Adsorption Studies of basic red 29 by a non conventional activated carbon prepared from Euphorbia Antiquorum. International Journal of Chemtech Research. 2009; 1(3):502-510.
Soheila G, Hasan T. Kinetic and multi-parameter isotherm studies of picric acid removal from aqueous solutions by carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the presence and absence of ultrasound. Carbon Letters. 2017;22:14-24.
Nzroozi B, Sorial GA, Bahrami H, Arami M. Equilibrium and kinetic adsorption study of a cationic dye by a natural adsorbent-sikworm pupa. Journal of Hazardous Material, 2007;239:167-174.
Yilmaz MS, Ozdemir OD, Kasap S, Piskin S. The kinetics and thermodynamics of nickel adsorption from galvanic sludge leachate on nanometer titania powders. Research on Chemical Intermediates. 2015;41:1499–1515.