Contribution of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials to the Treatment of Diabetic Patients by Aid of Novel Inventions

Main Article Content

Shiva Najigivi
Seyedahmadreza Mirmotallebi
Alireza Najigivi


Nanoscience and Nanotechnology are highly growing their significance in diabetic supplies and research nowadays. It is an area that included nanomaterials, nanosensors and nanostructures as well as nanoparticle projects and also their usage in human health research. Particularly, nanotechnology helps to the production of diabetic supplies, materials together with the development of novel glucose and insulin injection devices as well as their measurement sensors by the aid of nanomaterials. These materials mostly could be metal nanoparticles together with carbon nanostructures by nano dimension delivery mechanisms modalities which hold the potential to vividly recover the excellence of life of diabetic patients. Nanoscience and nanotechnology in diabetic research have facilitated and provided more truthful data for identifying diabetes mellitus. It is also worth mentioning that the nanotechnology could highly enhance the impact of drug delivery by addition of nanoscale materials and increase the glucose feeling, temporal response as well as glucose nursing. Furthermore, it is proposing novel nanoscale methods named closed-loop insulin delivery approaches which mechanically release insulin drug in reply to fluctuating blood glucose heights. Besides, the mixture of nanotechnology by medication has shaped a novel field of nanomedicine which could enhance human health level. It is worthwhile to mention that some of the applications of nanotechnology for the treatment of diabetic patients can be the production of diabetic supplies by nanotechnology. One of the most important diabetic instruments that could highly relieve the life of patients these days could be nano diabetic shoes which will describe here. In this research, applications of nanoscience and nanotechnology in treating diabetic patients were discussed.

Nanospheres, diabetes mellitus, nanomedicine, nanotechnology, diabetic shoes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Najigivi, S., Mirmotallebi, S., & Najigivi, A. (2020). Contribution of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials to the Treatment of Diabetic Patients by Aid of Novel Inventions. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 8(1), 29-40.
Review Article


Foot Complications, from the American Diabetes Association; first published no later than November 4, 2009, final published November 1, 2013.

India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative Diabetes Collaborators. The increasing burden of diabetes and variations among the states of India: The Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2016. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6:e1352-e1362.

National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS).

Available: Date accessed: November 24, 2018.

Addressing policy needs for prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in India. Prospect Public Health. 2015;135:257-263.

Prausnitz MR. et al. Transdermal drug delivery. Nat Biotechnol. 2008;26:1261–1268.

Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:s5–s10.

Arya AK, et al. Applications of nanotechnology in diabetes. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct. 2008;3:221-225.

Sowers JR, et al. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes care. 1999;22:C14–20.

Anne Trafton, MIT News Office. May 16. Press Inquiries; 2013.

Arya AK, et al. Applications of nanotechnology in diabetes. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct. 2008;3:221-225.

Mo R, et al. Emerging micro- and nanotechnology based synthetic approaches for insulin delivery. Chemical Society Reviews. 2014;43:3595–3629.

Recent advances and applications of nanotechnology in diabetes. Int J Pharm Biol Arch. 3:255-261.

Bratlie KM, et al. Invernale MA, Langer R, Anderson DG. Materials for diabetes therapeutics. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 2012;1:267–284.

Ross SA, et al. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Type 2 Diabetes. Chemical Reviews. 2004;104:1255–1282.

Pickup JC, et al. Nanomedicine and its potential in diabetes research and practice. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2008;24:604–610.

Sharma G, et al. Nanoparticle based insulin delivery system: The next generation efficient therapy for Type 1 diabetes. Nanobiotechnol. 2015;13: 74.

Bahshi L, et al. Optical detection of glucose by means of metal nanoparticles or semiconductor quantum dots. Small. 2009;5:676–680.

Veetil JV, et al. A glucose sensor protein for continuous glucose monitoring. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2010;26: 1650–1655.

Ataie A, et al. Influence of heating rate on characteristics of sintered BaFe12O19, ICRAMME 05, Malaysia, (proceeding of the international conference on recent advances in mechanical and materials engineering); 2005.

Gordijo CR, et al. Glucose-responsive bioinorganic nanohybrid membrane for self-regulated insulin release. Advanced Functional Materials. 2010;20:1404–1412.

Yetisen AK, et al. Nano Letters. Reusable, Robust, and Accurate Laser-Generated Photonic Nanosensor; 2014.

Chun AL, et al. Nanosensors: Bring it on. Nature Nanotechnology. 2006;84.

Ravaine V, et al. Chemically controlled closed-loop insulin delivery. Journal of Controlled Release. 2008;132:2–11.

Chertok B, et al. Drug delivery interfaces in the 21st century: From science fiction ideas to viable technologies. Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2013;10:3531–3543.

Najigivi A, et al. Experimental investigation of the size effects of SiO2 nano-particles on the mechanical properties of binary blended concrete. Composites: Part B, Thomson ISI (IF=1.704). 2010;41(8):673-677.

Veetil JV, et al. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of intracellular glucose dynamics. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2012;6:1276–1285.

Najigivi, A, et al. Investigating the effects of using different types of SiO2 nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of binary blended concrete, composites: Part B, Thomson ISI. 2013;52(4):141-52.

Uehara H, et al. Size-selective diffusion in nanoporous but flexible membranes for glucose sensors. ACS Nano. 2009;3:924-932.

Shan C, et al. Graphene/AuNPs/chitosan nanocomposites film for glucose biosensing. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2010;25:1070–1074.

Di J, et al. Ultrasound-triggered regulation of blood glucose levels using injectable nano-network. Adv Healthcare Mater; 2013.

Zeng X, et al. Electrodeposition of chitosan–ionic liquid–glucose oxidase biocomposite onto nano-gold electrode for amperometric glucose sensing. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2009;24:2898–2903.

Wu Q, et al. Organization of glucose-responsive systems and their properties. Chemical reviews. 2011;111:7855–7875.

Sandhu A, et al. Glucose sensing: Silicon’s sweet spot. Nature Nanotechnology; 2007

Wang G, et al. Enhanced amperometric detection of glucose using SiO2 particles. Applied Physics Letters. 2006;89.

Woldu MA, et al. Nanoparticles and the new era in diabetes management. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2014;3: 277- 284.

Dong XC, Xu H, Wang XW, Huang YX, Chan-Park MB, Zhang H, Wang LH, Huang W, Chen et al. P, 3D Graphene–cobalt oxide electrode for high-performance supercapacitor and enzymeless glucose detection. ACS Nano. 2012;6:3206–3213.

Barone PW, et al. Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Nature Materials. 2005;4:86–92.

Besteman K, et al. Enzyme-coated carbon nanotubes as single-molecule biosensors. Nano Letters. 2003;3:727–730.

Najigivi, A, et al. Predicting the optimal compressive strength of ternary blended concrete comprising nano-SiO2 and rice husk ash by artificial neural networks. Construction and Building Materials, Under Review. Thomson ISI; 2011.

Lin Y, et al. Glucose biosensors based on carbon nanotube nanoelectrode ensembles. Nano Letters. 2003;4:191–195.

McNicholas TP, et al. Structure and function of glucose binding protein-single walled carbon nanotube complexes. Small. 2012;5:345-435.

Tang H, et al. Highly sensitive glucose biosensors based on organic electro-chemical transistors using platinum gate electrodes modified with enzyme and nanomaterials. Advanced Functional Materials. 2011;21:2264–2272.

Yoon H, et al. Periplasmic binding proteins as optical modulators of single-walled carbon nanotube fluorescence: Amplifying a nanoscale actuator. Angewandte Chemie. 2011;123:1868–1871.

Yum K, Strano MS, et al. Boronic acid library for selective, reversible near-infrared fluorescence quenching of surfactant suspended single-walled carbon nanotubes in response to glucose. ACS Nano. 2011;6:819–830.

Yang G, et al. High performance conducting polymer nanofiber biosensors for detection of biomolecules. Advanced Materials; 2014.

Alireza Najigivi, et al. Contribution of steel fiber as reinforcement to the properties of cement-based concrete: A review. Construction and Buildings Materials, Under Review; 2015.

Nunes SP, et al. Switchable pH-responsive polymeric membranes prepared via block copolymer micelle assembly. ACS Nano. 2011;5:3516–3522.

Zhai D, et al. Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on pt nanoparticle/ polyaniline hydrogel Heterostructures. ACS Nano. 2013;7:3540–3546.

Ding Y, et al. Electrospun CO3O4 nanofibers for sensitive and selective glucose detection. Biosensors and Bio-electronics. 2010;26:542–548.

Sun EY, et al. Continuous analyte sensing with magnetic nanoswitches. Small. 2006; 2:1144–1147.

Subramani K, et al. Recent trends in diabetes treatment using nanotechnology. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct. 2012;7:85- 95.

Ballerstadt R, et al. Concanavalin A for in vivo glucose sensing: A biotoxicity review. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2006;22: 275–284.

Brown JQ, et al. Modeling of spherical fluorescent glucose microsensor systems: design of enzymatic smart tattoos. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2006;21: 1760–1769.

Song Y, et al. Graphene oxide: Intrinsic peroxidase catalytic activity and its application to glucose detection. Advanced Materials. 2010;22:2206–2210.

Najigivi A, et al. Neural network prediction model for optimizing permeability properties of cement-nano SiO2 rice husk ash ternary blended concrete. Composites: Part B (2010), Revision is Under Review. Thomson ISI; 2011.

Stuart DA, et al. In vivo glucose measurement by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Chemistry. 2006; 78:7211–7215.

The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine. 1993;329: 977–986.

Control D, et al. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. RETINA. 1994;14:286–287.

Kozlovskaya V, et al. Ultrathin polymeric coatings based on hydrogen-bonded polyphenol for protection of pancreatic islet cells. Advanced Functional Materials. 2012;22:3389–3398.

Najigivi A, et al. Assessment of the effects of lime solution on the properties of nano-SiO2 binary blended concrete. Composites: Part B. Thomson ISI. 2011;42(3):562-69.

Dang TT, et al. Enhanced function of immuno-isolated islets in diabetes therapy by co-encapsulation with an anti-inflammatory drug. Biomaterials. 2013;34: 5792–5801.

Wilson JT, et al. Layer-by-layer assembly of a conformal nanothin PEG coating for intraportal islet transplantation. Nano Letters. 2008;8:1940–1948.

Najigivi A, et al. Contribution of steel fiber as reinforcement to the properties of cement-based concrete: A review. Minor Revision is under Review. Thomson ISI; 2013.

Teramura Y, et al. Behavior of synthetic polymers immobilized on a cell membrane. Biomaterials. 2008;29:1345–1355.

Wilson JT, et al. Cell surface engineering with polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2011;133:7054–7064.

Gattas-Asfura KM, et al. Bioorthogonal layer-by-layer encapsulation of pancreatic islets via hyperbranched polymers. ACS Applied Material Interfaces. 2013;5:9964–9974.

Boudou T, et al. Multiple functionalities of polyelectrolyte multilayer films: New biomedical applications. Advanced Materials. 2010;22:441–467.

Gu Z, et al. Injectable nano-network for glucose-mediated insulin delivery. ACS Nano. 2013;7:4194–4201.

Tai W, et al. Bio-inspired synthetic nano-vesicles for glucose-responsive release of insulin. Biomacromolecules; 2014.

Cui F, et al. Preparation, characterization and oral delivery of insulin loaded carboxylated chitosan grafted poly (methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles. Biomacro-molecules. 2008;10:1253-1258.

Gordijo CR, et al. Nanotechnology-enabled closed loop insulin delivery device: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of glucose-regulated insulin release for diabetes control. Advanced Functional Materials. 2011;21: 73–82.


Gu Z, Anderson DG, et al. Glucose-responsive microgels integrated with enzyme nanocapsules for closed-loop insulin delivery. ACS Nano. 2013;7:6758–6766.

Chen M, et al. A glucose-responsive controlled release system using glucose oxidase-gated mesoporous silica nano-containers. Chemical Communications. 2012;48:9522–9524.

Najigivi A, et al. Water absorption control of ternary blended concrete with nano-SiO2 in presence of rice husk ash. Materials and Structures, Accepted Manuscript. Thomson ISI; 2011.

Sun L, et al. Oral glucose-and pH-sensitive nanocarriers for simulating insulin release in vivo. Polymer Chemistry. 2014;5:1999–2009.

Sanchez C, et al. Applications of advanced hybrid organic–inorganic nanomaterials: From laboratory to market. Chemical Society Reviews. 2011;40:696–753.

Mónica C, et al. Drug delivery systems based on nonimmunogenic biopolymers.


Swarnali D, et al. Novel gels: implications for drug delivery. 2017;3:67-75.

Geijtenbeek TB, et al. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: Shaping immune responses. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2009;9:465–479.

Wu S, et al. Glucose- and pH-responsive controlled release of cargo from protein-gated carbohydrate-functionalized mesoporous silica nanocontainers. Angewandte Chemie. 2013;52:5580–5584.

Najigivi A, et al. Influence of nano-SiO2 addition on the mechanical properties of binary blended concrete. International Journal of Materials Research, Accepted Manuscript. Thomson ISI; 2011.

Lorand JP, et al. Polyol complexes and structure of the benzeneboronate ion. The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 1959;24: 769–774.

Kataoka K, et al. Totally synthetic polymer gels responding to external glucose concentration: Their preparation and application to on-off regulation of insulin release. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1998;120:12694–12695.

Najigivi A, et al. Particle size effect on the permeability properties of nano-SiO2 blended Portland cement concrete. Journal of Composite Materials. Thomson ISI. 2011;45:1173-1180.

Wang B, et al. Glucose-responsive micelles from self-assembly of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) and the controlled release of insulin. Langmuir. 2009;25:12522–12528.

Yao Y, et al. Glucose-responsive vehicles containing phenylborate ester for controlled insulin release at neutral pH. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:1837–1844.

Zhao L, et al. Glucose-sensitive polypeptide micelles for self-regulated insulin release at physiological pH. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2012;22:12319–12328.

Wu W, et al. A fluorescent responsive hybrid nanogel for closed-loop control of glucose. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. 2012;6:892–901.

Alireza Najigivi, et al. Comparison of the failure expansion behavior of control and Nano-Silica binary blended mortars using Acoustic Emission Technique. Materials and Structures, Under Review; 2016.

Wu Z, et al. An injectable and glucose-sensitive nanogel for controlled insulin release. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 2012;22:22788–22796.

Kataoka K, et al. On-off regulation of insulin-release by totally synthetic polymer gels responding to external glucose concentration. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 1999;217: U564–U564.

Ancla C, et al. Designed glucose-responsive microgels with selective shrinking behavior. Langmuir. 2011;27: 12693–12701.

Najigivi A, et al. Investigations on the development of the permeability properties of binary blended concrete with nano SiO2 particles. Journal of Composite Materials, Thomson ISI. 2011;45:1931-1938.

Kumar BV, et al. Glucose- and pH-responsive charge-reversal surfaces. Langmuir. 2014;30:4540–4544.

Najigivi A, et al. Influence of 15 and 80 nano-SiO2 particles addition on mechanical and physical properties of ternary blended concrete incorporating rice husk ash. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, Accepted Manuscript. Thomson ISI; 2011.

Park CW, et al. Core–shell nanogel of PEG–poly(aspartic acid) and its pH-responsive release of Rh-insulin. Soft Matter. 2013;9:1781.

Kim H, et al. Monosaccharide-responsive release of insulin from polymersomes of polyboroxole block copolymers at neutral pH. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2012;134:4030–4033.

Najigivi A, et al. A novel artificial neural networks model for predicting permeability properties of nano silica-rice husk ash ternary blended concrete. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials. Accepted Manuscript. Thomson ISI; 2013.

Zhao Y, et al. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based double drug delivery system for glucose-responsive controlled release of insulin and cyclic AMP. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2009; 131:8398–8400.

Zhao W, Zhang H, He Q, Li Y, Gu J, Li L, Li H, Shi J. A glucose-responsive controlled release of insulin system based on enzyme multilayers-coated mesoporous silica particles. Chemical Communications. 2011;47:9459–9461.

Scognamiglio V. Nanotechnology in glucose monitoring: Advances and challenges in the last 10 years. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2013;47:12–25.

Najigivi A. et al. Assessment of the effects of rice husk ash particle size on strength, water permeability and workability of binary blended concrete. Construction and Building Materials. Thomson ISI. 2010; 24(11):2145-2150.

Zion T, et al. Cross-linked polymer encapsulating the therapeutic agent; degradation rate of the cross-linked polymer is correlated with a local concentration of an indicator, and the therapeutic agent is released as the cross-linked polymer degrades; 2004.

Zion TC, et al. Glucose-sensitive nanoparticles for controlled insulin delivery; 2003.

Brogden RN, et al. Drugs. 1987;34:350–371.

Stanley SA, et al. Radio-wave heating of iron oxide nanoparticles can regulate plasma glucose in mice. Science. 2012; 336:604–608.

Najigivi A, et al. Contribution of rice husk ash to the properties of mortar and concrete: A review. Journal of American Science. Thomson ISI. 2010;6(3):157–165.

Di J, et al. Ultrasound-triggered regulation of blood glucose levels using injectable nano-network. Advanced Healthcare Materials. 2014;3:811–816.

Alireza Najigivi et al. Study on the sensitivity of fracture toughness and failure behaviour of concrete in presence of nano silica particles. International Journal of Concrete Structures, Under Review; 2016.

Nimase PK, et al. Nanotechnology and diabetes. Int J Adv Pharm 2. 5. Harsoliya MS, Patel VM, Modasiya M, Pathan JK, Chauhan A, et al. Diabetic Foot Care at Podiatry; 2013.

[Published 2003; Retrieved September 6, 2011]

DeMello et al. Feet and footwear: A cultural encyclopedia. Macmillan. 2009;92–94.

[ISBN 9780313357145]

Therapeutic Shoes or Inserts, from

[Accessed November 1, 2013]

Citation: Gupta R. Diabetes treatment by nanotechnology. J Biotechnol Biomater 2017;7:268.

DOI: 10.4172/2155-952X.1000268

Veiseh O, et al. Managing diabetes with nanomedicine: Challenges and opportunities. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015; 14:45-57.