Characteristics of Effluent from Formic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide Pulping of Kenaf Stem
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences,
The pulp and paper industry is considered as one of the major potential sources of pollution in the environment and a consumer of wood. Environmental effects have been attributed to chemicals introduced during the manufacturing process. This paper investigated the influence of cooking chemicals, concentration and time on the properties of effluent generated during pulping of agricultural residue. A stem of kenaf which is an agricultural residue was pulped with 20%, 60% and 90% concentrations of formic acid and sodium hydroxide at 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours intervals to determine the characteristics of their effluents. The lowest Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) obtained from formic acid effluent for the 3 hours cooking at 20%, 60% and 90% concentrations was 324mg/l at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide effluent has 3050mg/l at 20% concentration after 1hour cooking as its lowest. Formic acid effluent showed lowest Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 10.63mg/l at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide has 13.75mg/l at 90% after 1 hour cooking. The value of Total Solid (TS) from formic acid effluent was lowest (16890mg/l) at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide lowest value (15524mg/l) was recorded at 20% after 3 hours cooking. Sodium hydroxide effluent has lowest Total Suspended Solid (TSS) of 3165mg/l while formic acid has 2245mg/l both at 90% concentrations after 2 and 3 hours cooking.
- Formic acid
- sodium hydroxide
- biochemical oxygen demand
- chemical oxygen demand
- Total suspended solid
How to Cite
Ervasti I. Wood fiber contents of different materials in the paper industry material chain expressed in roundwood equivalents (RWEs), Silva Fenn. 2016;50:1–21.
Harshwardhan K, Upadhyay K. Fundamentals of renewable energy and applications effective utilization of agricultural waste: Review. J. Fundam.Renew. Energy Appl. 2017;7:5–7.
Series IOPC, Science M. Utilization of rice straw and used paper for the recycle papermaking; 2019.
Thriller AP. A plan for saving forests and climate; 2020.
Chukwudebelu JA, Igwe CC, Madukasi EI. Prospects of using whole rice husk for the production of dense and hollow bricks. Afr. Jour. Env. Sci. and Tech. (AJEST). 2015; 9(5):493 – 501.
Jaffur N, Jeetah P. Production of low cost paper from Pandanus utilis fibres as a substitution to wood, Sustain. Environ.Res. 2019;1:1–10.
Sarwar MJ, M. Sarkar, MM Rahman. Sodium carbonate pre-extraction of bamboo prior to soda anthraquinone pulping, 10th World Bamboo Congress, Korea, 2015;1-15.
Eugenio ME, D Ibarra, R Martín-Sampedro, E Espinosa, I Bascón, A Rodríguez, Alternative Raw Materials for Pulp and Paper Production in the Concept of a Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Chapter in Intechopen. 2019; 27.
Jiménez L, A Rodríguez, A Pérez, A Moral L. Serrano. Alternative raw materials and pulping process using clean technologies. Ind. Crops & Prod. 2008;28(1):11.
Khider TO, SH Omer, OT Elzaki, SD Mohieldin, SK Shomeina. Application of alkaline Pulping to Pruned Branches of Citrus limon from Sudan. Res. Square preprint; 2020.
DOI:10.21203/ rs.2.21218/ v1
Mohieldin SD. Pretreatment approaches in non-wood plants for pulp and paper production : A review. J. For. Prod. Ind. 2015;3:84–88.
López AMQ, Dos Santos Silva AL, Dos Santos ECL. The fungal ability for biobleaching/ biopulping/bioremediation of lignin-like compounds of agro-industrial raw material, Quim. Nova. 2017;40:916–931.
Hurter RW. Nonwood fibres and moulded products, Pap. Technol. 2015;14–17.
Singh SP, Kumar V, Naithani S. Biopulping : An ecofriendly technology to reduce the; 2015.
Chukwudebelu JA, Agunwamba JC. Comparison of solids in effluents from pulping kenaf stem with formic acid and sodium hydroxide. Afr. Jour. Env. Sci. and Tech. (AJEST). 2017;11(3)132 – 138.
Liu Z, Wang H, Hui L. Pulping and papermaking of non-wood fibers, pulp pap. Process. 2018;3–32.
Rodríguez A, Espinosa E, Domínguez-Robles J, Sánchez R, Bascón I, Rosal A. Different solvents for organosolv pulping, in: Pulp Pap. Process; 2018.
Taslima F, Jahan S, Quaiyyum M, Uddin N. Formic acid pulping of crops residues available in Bangladesh Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery; 2019.
Azeez MA. Pulping of non-woody biomass, pulp pap. Process; 2018.
Chukwudebelu JA, Agunwamba JC. Bod and Cod Characteristics of Effluents from Formic Acid and Sodium Hydroxide Pulping of Kenaf Stem. Int J Environ Sci Nat Res. 2019;22(2):556081.
Chukwudebelu JA, Agunwamba JC. Comparison of solids in effluents from pulping kenaf stem with formic acid and sodium hydroxide. Afr. Jour. Env. Sci. and Tech. (AJEST). 2017;11(3):132 – 138.
Yadav S, Chandra R. Detection and assessment of the phytotoxicity of residual organic pollutants in sediment contaminated with pulp and paper mill effluent. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2018; 190(10):581–595.
Chandra R, Sharma P, Yadav S, Tripathi S. Biodegradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals and residual organic pollutants of pulp and paper mill effluent by biostimulation. Front. Microbiol. 2018;1-15.
Gustavo C, Ricardo B, Mauricio D, Meyling R, Paulina B, Kelly R, Munkittrick. Estrogencity and intersex in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmy kiss) exposed to Pine/ Eucalyptus pulp and paper production effluent in Chile. Aquat. Toxicol. 2015;164:126–134.
Savant D, Abdul-Rahman R, Ranade D. Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and paper industry wastewater. Bioresource Technol. 2006;97:1092–1104.
USEPA US. Environmental Protection Agency. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, Universe of Chemicals for Potential Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing, Jointly developed by the Office of Chemical Safety & Pollution Prevention, the Office of Water and the Office of Research and Development, 2012;1-176.
Mostafa, M.; Shakil Z. and Shakilur M. Paper Industries Concern Water Pollution: A Review International Journal of Innovative Research and Review. 2021; 9:19-31.
ISSN: 2347 – 4424.
APHA, AWWA, WEF. Standard Methods for the Examination of and Wastewater 21st ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C; 2005.
Pooja T, Virendra K, Gyanesh J, Sat P, Suresh P, Sanjay N, Raman N. A Comparative study on physico-chemical properties of pulp and paper mill effluent. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 2013; 3(6):811-818.
Preeti N Studies on the effluent generated during the pulping process in paper industry. Curr. World Environ. 2008; 3(1):189-193.
Abstract View: 145 times
PDF Download: 38 times