Evaluation of the Organoleptic Properties and Free Fatty Acid (FFA) of Cooking Oil in the Selected Stores of Poblacion Malita, Davao Occidental, Philippines
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences,
The study aimed to evaluate the organoleptic properties and percent (%) free fatty acid (FFA) content of cooking oil, namely Coconut oil, palm oil, and Canola oil, in the selected stores of Poblacion Malita, Davao Occidental Philippines. The study compared the organoleptic properties and % FFA of the cooking oil to the Codex standard of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The study was conducted from August to December 2021. The post-product organoleptic evaluation of organoleptic properties and % FFA content in cooking oils can aid in determining the FFA safety level of cooking oil. A total of 15 samples (10 mL each) of Coconut, Palm and Canola oil were randomly collected from five selected stores. The organoleptic properties of collected oil samples were evaluated by direct inspection following the protocol by Dentali (2013). Free Fatty Acids (FFA) were analyzed using a titration method approved by the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS). Results revealed that the color of coconut oil samples from the selected stores was very light yellow; canola oils were light yellow, and palm oils from the same stores had a golden yellow color. The taste and odor of coconut, palm, and canola oil samples were neutral, as well as the odor. The organoleptic characteristics of the oil samples were within the Codex Standard of FAO; thus, the products were compliant to the Codex standard. The percentage of FFA content showed that Coconut oil and Canola oil had lower FFA content compared to Palm oil. The average FFA values for each oil group were all compliant to the 2% limit set by industry standards.
- Cooking oil
- % FFA
- quality control
- food safety
How to Cite
Braga JD, Lauzon RD, Galvez LA. Physicochemical Characterization of Used Coconut Oil from Vacuum Frying of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) Pulp EVIARC Sweet Variety as Affected by Frying Cycle. Philippine Journal of Science. 2019:148(4):587-595.
Endo Y. Analytical methods to evaluate the quality of edible fats and oils: The JOCS standard methods for analysis of fats, oils and related materials and advanced methods. J Oleo Sci. 2018; 67(1):1–10.
Foster R, Williamson CS, Lunn J. Briefing Paper: Culinary oils and their health effects. Nutr Bull. 2009;34: 4–47.
Chen, WA, Chiu CP, Cheng WC, Hsu CK, & Kuo MI. Total polar compounds and acid values of repeatedly used frying oils measured by standard and rapid methods. J Food Drug Anal. 2013:21(1), 58–65.
Feiner G. Rancidity of Fat and oils.
Retrieved on 12, May, 2021
Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/to pics/agricultural-and-biological- sciences/rancidity.
Dand R. The International cocoa trade.
Retrieved on 12, May, 2021
Available:https://www.researchgate.net/pu blication/287040819_The_International_Co coa_Trade_Third_Edition
Mahesar SA, Sherazi STH, Khaskheli AR, Kandhro AA, Uddin A. Analytical approaches for the assessment of free fatty acids in oils and fats. Anal Methods. 2014:6:4956-4963
Almeida DT, Nunes IL, Conde PL, Rosa RPS, Rogério WF, Machado ER. A quality assessment of crude palm oil marketed in Bahia, Brazil. Grasas y Aceites. 2013:64(4):387-394.
Orthoefer FT, List GR. Evaluation of used frying oil. In: Erickson, M.D., editor. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition and Practical Applications. 2nd edition. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press. 2007;329-342.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Standard methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives. Oxford: Pergamon. 2012;6.
Simpson B. Comparative studies on the yield and quality of solvent extracted oil from salmon skin. Journal of Food Engineering. 2009;92(3):353-358
Dentali S. American Herbal Products Association. Organoleptic Analysis of Herbal Ingredients. AHPA. Silver Spring MD; 2013.
AOCS. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign; 1998.
Fisher Scientific, Fairlawn, NJ; 2021.
Retrieved on 12, May, 2021
FAO. The state of food insecurity in the world.
Retrieved on 2, June, 2021 from
Available: https://www.fao.org/publications/ card/en/c/a1e4e8ad-a977-5d6d-8ac2- 4035a981ff6f
Codex Alimentarius Commission. Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils (CODEX-STAN 210 - 1999).
Dayrit FM, Buenafe OEM, Chainani ET, De Vera IM, Dimzon IK, Gonzales EG, Santos JE. Standards for Essential Composition and Quality Factors of Commercial Virgin Coconut Oil and its Differentiation from RBD Coconut Oil and Copra Oil. Philippine Journal of Science. 2007;136 (2):119- 129.
Suryani S, Sariani S, Earnestly F, Marganof M, Rahmawati R, Sevindrajuta S, Meurah T, Mahlia I, Fudholi A. A Comparative Study of Virgin Coconut Oil, Coconut Oil and Palm Oil in Terms of Their Active Ingredients. Processes. 2020;8: 402.
Adjonu R, Zhou Z, Prenzler P, Ayton J, Blanchard C. Different Processing Practices and the Frying Life of Refined Canola Oil. Foods. 2019;8:527.
Canadian grain commission. Updated; March 14, 2022.
Available:https://in-research/export quality/oilseeds/canola/2021/09-free-fatty acids.html?fbclid=IwAR0fVUjCd4gj_6WLPQ4CDhbil7yfngsC6PIZiLLJaEph2gPueOj9rdFgphs
Dunford, NT. Edible Oil Quality. FAPC. 2016;197.
Sook Chin Chew, Kar Lin Nyam. Chapter 6 - Refining of edible oils, Editor(s): Charis M. Galanakis, Lipids and Edible Oils, Academic Press. 2020;213-241.
Abstract View: 98 times
PDF Download: 20 times