Determination of Chemical Explosive Remnants in Soils of Boko Haram’s Affected Areas of Gombe State Nigeria

Baba Adamu Mohammed *

Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, PMB127, T/Wada Gombe, Nigeria.

Oliver N. Maitera

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim: This research was conducted to ascertain the level of pollution of our physical environment as a result of years of Boko Haram’s activities in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria.

Study Design and Place of Study: Samples for this research were collected from Bajoga, Nafada and Gombe metropolis and environs all in Funakaye, Nafada, and Gombe Local Government Areas respectively. Samples were taken only from places with recorded Boko Haram’s explosion activities. A control sample for each study area was taken from an area that has no record of Boko Haram attacks. Gombe State is located in the North-Eastern part of Nigeria on latitude10015’00’’N and longitude 11010’00’’E bordering Yobe, Borno, Adamawa, Taraba and Bauchi states.

Methodology: The concentrations of explosive remnants (4-Nitrotoluene, 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde, 1,3-Dinitrotoluene, 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 3,5- Dinitrotoluene, Trinitrotoluene, RDX and HMX) in the soil samples of the attacked areas were investigated using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometer, GC-MS.

Results: The result indicates 4-Nitrotoluene; 0.05-0.085µg/kg, 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde; 0.07-0.19µg/kg; 1,3-Dinitrotoluene; 0.005-0.060µg/kg, 2,4-DNT; 6.16-6.86µg/kg, 3,5-DNT; 0.40-0.90µg/kg, TNT; 0.29-0.66µg/kg and RDX and HMX were not detected. All the samples in the study area had 4-Nitrotolene and 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde concentrations above those in their respective controls. 1,3-DNT in Bajoga samples, 2,4-DNT in K Police station and K/mata, 3,5-DNT in Gombe metropolis, and TNT in NFD Police station were all found to be below the concentrations in their control

Conclusion: There is possible 4-Nitrotolene and 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde contaminations in all the studied sites and absence of pollution by 1,3-DNT in Bajoga, 2,4-DNT in K Police station and K/mata, 3,5-DNT in Gombe metropolis, and TNT in NFD Police station.

Keywords: Explosives, remnants, soil, boko haram

How to Cite

Mohammed , B. A., & Maitera , O. N. (2023). Determination of Chemical Explosive Remnants in Soils of Boko Haram’s Affected Areas of Gombe State Nigeria. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 13(6), 106–117.


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