Determination of Chemical Explosive Remnants in Soils of Boko Haram’s Affected Areas of Gombe State Nigeria
Issue: 2023 - Volume 13 [Issue 6]
Baba Adamu Mohammed *
Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, PMB127, T/Wada Gombe, Nigeria.
Oliver N. Maitera
Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, Yola, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aim: This research was conducted to ascertain the level of pollution of our physical environment as a result of years of Boko Haram’s activities in Gombe State, North-Eastern Nigeria.
Study Design and Place of Study: Samples for this research were collected from Bajoga, Nafada and Gombe metropolis and environs all in Funakaye, Nafada, and Gombe Local Government Areas respectively. Samples were taken only from places with recorded Boko Haram’s explosion activities. A control sample for each study area was taken from an area that has no record of Boko Haram attacks. Gombe State is located in the North-Eastern part of Nigeria on latitude10015’00’’N and longitude 11010’00’’E bordering Yobe, Borno, Adamawa, Taraba and Bauchi states.
Methodology: The concentrations of explosive remnants (4-Nitrotoluene, 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde, 1,3-Dinitrotoluene, 2,4-Dinitrotoluene, 3,5- Dinitrotoluene, Trinitrotoluene, RDX and HMX) in the soil samples of the attacked areas were investigated using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometer, GC-MS.
Results: The result indicates 4-Nitrotoluene; 0.05-0.085µg/kg, 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde; 0.07-0.19µg/kg; 1,3-Dinitrotoluene; 0.005-0.060µg/kg, 2,4-DNT; 6.16-6.86µg/kg, 3,5-DNT; 0.40-0.90µg/kg, TNT; 0.29-0.66µg/kg and RDX and HMX were not detected. All the samples in the study area had 4-Nitrotolene and 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde concentrations above those in their respective controls. 1,3-DNT in Bajoga samples, 2,4-DNT in K Police station and K/mata, 3,5-DNT in Gombe metropolis, and TNT in NFD Police station were all found to be below the concentrations in their control
Conclusion: There is possible 4-Nitrotolene and 4-Propyl Benzaldehyde contaminations in all the studied sites and absence of pollution by 1,3-DNT in Bajoga, 2,4-DNT in K Police station and K/mata, 3,5-DNT in Gombe metropolis, and TNT in NFD Police station.
Keywords: Explosives, remnants, soil, boko haram
How to Cite
Pérouse de Montclos MA. Nigeria’s interminable insurgency? Addressing the Boko Haram crisis. London, UK: Chatham House. The Royal Institute of International Affairs; 2014.
Abdhesh G. Landmines - Challenges to humanity and environment. Organized by Indian Institute of Peace, Disarmament and environmental protection, Nagpur, India and Global Green Peace, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India at Srinagar, India; 2003.
Thiboutot S, Ampleman G, Hewitt A. Guide for characterization of sites contaminated with energetic materials. Tech. Rep. ERDC/CRREL TR-02-1, US. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Hanover, NH, USA; 2002.
Pennington JC, Jenkins TF, Ampleman G. Distribution and fate of energetics on DOD test and training ranges: ﬁnal report,” ERDC TR-06-13, US Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Miss, USA; 2006.
Chakraboty N, Begum P, Patel BK. Counter balancing common explosive pollutants (TNT, RDX and HMX) in the environment by Microbial Degradation. Development in wastewater Treatment Research and processes. First edition. 2022;263-310.
George SE, Huggins-Clark G, Brooks LR. Use of a salmonella micro suspension bioassay to detect the mutagenicity of munitions compounds at low concentrations. Mutation Research. 2001;490(1):45–56.
Pont MM. Health-based reassessment of administrative occupational exposure limits: Perhydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine. Gezondheidsraad; 2004.
Pichtel J. Distribution and fate of military explosives and propellants in soil: A review. Applied and environmental soil science; 2012. Article ID 617236
Martel R, Robertson TJ, Quan DM. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in soil and ground water under a waste lagoon at the former Explosives Factory Maribyrnong (EFM), Victoria, Australia, Environmental Geology. 2008;53(6)1249–1259.
Kalderis D, Juhasz AL, Boopathy R, Comfort S. Soils contaminated with explosives: environmental fate and evaluation of state-of-the-art remediation processes (IUPAC technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2011;83(7):1407–1484.
Aluko TS, Njoku KL, Adesuyi AA, Akinola MO. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil from the iron mines of Itakpe and Agbaja, Kogi State, Nigeria. Pollution. 2018;4(3):527-538.
USEPA: United States Environmental Protection Agency Provisional peer reviewed toxicity values for p-Nitrotoluene (4-Nitrotoluene) (CASRN 99-99-0)- EPA/690/R-07/026F Final 9-28; 2007.
Jenkins TF, Pennington JC, Ampleman G. Characterization and fate of gun and rocket propellant residues on testing and training ranges: interim report 1. Tech. Rep. ERDCTR-07-01. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Vicksburg, Miss, USA; 2007.
Walsh ME, Racine CH, Jenkins TF, Gelvin A, Ranney TA. Sampling for explosives residues at Fort Greely, Alaska. ERDC/CRREL TR-01-15, US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH, USA; 2001.
ATSDR: Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for dinitrotoluenes; 2013 Available:www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp109.pdf
Paca J, Halecky M, Hudcova T, Paca Jr, Stiborova M, Kozliak E. Factors influencing the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene in continuous packed Bed Reactors. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A. 2011;46:1328-1337.
Clausen JL, Scott C, Osgerby I. Fate of nitroglycerin and dinitrotoluene in soil at small arms training ranges. Soil and Sediment Contamination. 2011;20:649–671.
Jenkins TF, Walsh ME, Miyares PH. Analysis of explosives-related chemical signatures in soil samples collected near buried land mines, Engineer research and development center, Hanover, NH, USA; 2000.
Kosanlavit W, Noinumsai N. Effects of nanoscale zero-valent iron on soil-leaching of trinitrotoluene contaminated soil in acid rain conditions. Key Engineering Materials. 2022;907:66-73
Jenkins TF, Pennington JC, Ranney TA, Berry T, Miyares PH. Characterization of explosives contamination at military firing ranges; ERDCTR-01-5; U.S. Army corps of engineers, Engineer research and development center: Hanover, NH, USA; 2001.