Formulation of Emulsion Paint Derived from Waste Expanded Polystyrene as a Binder

Uhiene Titus

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, P.M.B 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Kalu M. Kalu *

Department of Chemistry, Gombe State University, P.M.B 127, Tudun Wada, Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria.

Mtswen Saa-Aondo

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, P.M.B 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Luntsi John

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, P.M.B 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

Emmanuel K. Chinedu

Department of Chemistry, Modibbo Adama University, P.M.B 2076, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria.

J. M. Yelwa

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria, P.M.B 1052, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Emulsion paint, also known as water-based paint, is a type of paint that consists of small water droplets suspended in a binder. The binder, typically made of acrylic or vinyl acetate polymers, acts as a film-forming agent that holds the pigments and other additives together. Emulsion paint was formulated from waste expanded polystyrene as a binder. The formulated emulsion paint which underwent a three-staged process had a pH of 7.82, density of 1.31 g/cm3, the drying time was 15-20 and 85-90 minutes for the set to touch and set to hard drying times respectively, viscosity of 10.4 Cp. The formulated paint exhibited good adhesion, tackiness, opacity, flexibility and stability properties. The paint also possessed good resistance to blistering; which indicates that it has good external exposure resistance and thus; can perform well when exposed to environmental conditions such as rain and sun. Effects of concentration on viscosity, density, melting point, refractive index, moisture uptake, turbidity, elongation at break and water solubility were studied for the polystyrene binder to ascertain for its suitability. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer was employed to characterized the binder. This investigation revealed favourable properties of a conventional emulsion paint inherent in the formulated polystyrene binder derived emulsion paint such as, drying time, moisture uptake, water solubility.

Keywords: Binder, emulsion, polystyrene, paint, drying time

How to Cite

Titus, U., Kalu, K. M., Saa-Aondo, M., John , L., Chinedu, E. K., & Yelwa, J. M. (2024). Formulation of Emulsion Paint Derived from Waste Expanded Polystyrene as a Binder. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 14(1), 29–41.


Download data is not yet available.


Moore M., Bailey A., Polymer science and technology. Plastics, rubbers, blends, and composites. CRC Press;2012.

Ngozi Nzewi H, Mary Chiekezie O., Entrepreneurial skills and competitiveness in the Nigerian painting industry;2015. Available:

Abba ZY, Gumel SM, Idris AA, Ibrahim MA. Formulation of paint using natural pigment from lawsonia inermis leaves, International Journal of Advanced Chemistry. 2020;8(1):155

DOI: 10.14419/ijac. v8i1.30712.

Ni X, Wu Z, Zhang W, Lu K, Ding Y, Mao S. Energy utilization of building insulation waste expanded polystyrene. Pyrolysis kinetic estimation by a new comprehensive method, Polymers (Basel). 2020;12(8).

DOI: 10.3390/POLYM12081744.

Choy KKH, Tan CY, Liau LA, Zhou X, Phee SF. A review on natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. in handbook of natural fibres. Woodhead Publishing. 2017;1-60.

Breeuwer HM, Belisario-Ferrari MR, Spanjaard J A. Emulsion paint morphology. A confocal laser scanning microscopy study. Journal of Coatings Technology Research. 2012;9(2): 201–210. DOI: 10.1007/s11998-011-9378-3

Osemeahon S A., Barminas J T., Aliyu B A. Development of emulsion paint from a copolymer composite of methylolurea and soyabeanoil. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2009;34(2):134-139.

Khalid A, Al-Bermany J, Jabbar SA, Study the effect of adding PVA on Some physical properties of CMC polymer as aqueous solutions 2012;2012 Available:

Osemeahon SA, Barminas. Development of amino resin for emulsion paint formulation. reactive blending of methylol urea with soybean oil. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007;6(6): 803–809


Kalu KM., Emmanuel M., Chinedu EK., Akinterinwa A. Titus U., Kenneth R., Haruna NA, Aliyu BA. Extraction synthesis and characterization of an alkyd resin from sesamum indicum seed oil. Open Access Library Journal. 2023;10:10447. Available: httEPS:// 1110447

Ezeagba JU, Ikezu UJM, Iloh EO. Formation of an oil paint using alkyd resin from soyabean oil. World Applied Science Journal. 2014;32(1):83–87 DOI:10.5829/idosi.wasj2014.32.01.84128

Fadawa FG., Osemeahon SA., Dass PM., Aliyu BA. Characterization of composites from dimethylol urea and hydroxylated black seed oil for possible application as an emulsion paint binder; 2008 Available: www.Ftstjournal.Com

Akinterinwa A., Osemeahon SA, Nkafamiya II., Dass PM. Formulation of emulsion paint from a copolymer composite of dimethylol urea/polystyrene. 2015;7 Available:

Oladipo GO, Eromosele IC, Folarin OM, Formation and characterization of Paint based on alkyd resin derivative of ximenia americana (Wild Olive) seed oil. Environment and Natural Resources Research. 2013;3:(3).

DOI:10.5539/enrr. v3n3p52

Onukwli D. Igbokwe P.K. Production and characterization of castor oil-modified alkyd resins. The Journal of Engineering and Applied Science. 2008;3,161-165.

Abbas KA, Muhammed KY, Olufemi KS. Characterization of emulsion paints formulated using reactive – dyed starch as a pigment, International Institute of Engineers; 2014. DOI: 10.15242/iicbe.c614005

Gidigbi JA, Osemeahon SA, Ngoshe AM, Babanyaya A, Coating industry; 2019 Available:

Egbuna SO, Aninwede CS, Comparative analysis of alkyd resins produced from castor and soybean seed oils. International Journal of Novel Research in Engineering and Science. 2018;5 (1):24-3 Available:

Ibrahim KA, Abu-sbeih KA, Al-Trawneh I, Bourghli L. Preparation and characterization of alkyd resins of jordan valley tomato oil. Journal of Polymer Environment. 2014;22(4):553–558 DOI: 10.1007/s10924-014-0664-9.

Akintayo CO, Adebowale KO. synthesis and characterization of alkyd resin from albizia lebbeck (frywood) seeds. Scientific Research Journal. 2019;07 (09):118–141 DOI:10.31364/scirj/v7.i9.2019.p0919703.

Isaac IO, Ekpa OD. Comparative study on the kinetics of the preparation of melon seed and cottonseed oils based biopolymers. American Journal of Polymer Science. 2014;2014(1):7–15 DOI: 10.5923/j.ajEPS.20140401.02.

Akpan UG, Jimoh A, Mohammed AD, Extraction, characterization and modification of castor Seed oil; 2006. Available:

Uzoh CF, Nwabanne JT, Investigating the effect of catalyst type and concentration on the functional group conversion in castor seed oil alkyd resin production. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science. 2016;06 (02):190–200. DOI:10.4236/aces.2016.62020.

NIS (Nigerian industrial standards), Standard for Paints and vanishes Part 3. Nigerian Industrial Standard, Lagos; 1989.

Standards organization of nigeria (SON). Specifications for emulsion paint for decorative purposes, Lagos, Nigeria; 2008.

Sanyaolu NO, Awosanya A, Sonde OI, Kareem FA, Yussuf ST., Akinwunmi F, Ibikunle AA. Comparative evaluation of the alkyd resins of the composite oils of soybean (Ricinus communis) and castor (glycine max) seed oils with castor seed oil for alkyd paint formulation. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2019;44 (5):914 -921.

Aigbodion AI., Pillai CKS.,. Synthesis and molecular weight characterization of rubber seed oil-modified alkyd resins as binders in surface coatings. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. 2001;8: 378-384.

Osemeahon SA, Nkafamiya II, Maitera ON, Akinterinwa A., Journal of polymer & composites synthesis and characterization of emulsion paint binder from a copolymer composite of dimethylol urea/ polystyrene; 2015.