Congo Red Removal from Polluted Water using NaOH Treated Fallen Leaves of Ficus racemosa

G. Indramahalakshmi *

Department of Chemistry, Cardamom Planters’ Association College, Bodinayakanur-625513, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Naoh treated biosorbent  Ficus Racemosa Leaf Powder (NaFRLP) was prepared from the fallen leaves of the plant. FT-IR, SEM and BET analysis were done to characterize the biosorbent. The biosorbent was found to be mesoporous with an average pore size 18 nm. Batch adsorption equilibrium studies were conducted for the adsorption of congo red on NaFRLP as a function of adsorbent dosage, agitation speed, dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Batch adsorption studies revealed that with an increase in the time of adsorption, the percentage removal of congo red increases and with an increase in the concentration of dye solution, congo red removal decreases. Initial dye concentration of 100 mgL-1, agitation speed 200 rpm and adsorbent dosage 1gL-1 were the optimum conditions for the effective removal of congo red. The adsorption data well agreed with the Langmuir isotherm as indicated by the higher correlation coefficient (R2=0.962) value. Thermodynamic analysis of the batch adsorption studies indicated that all the processes studied were spontaneous with the congo red adsorption on NaFRLP being endothermic.  Intra particle diffusion model was also tested. NaFRLP was found to be an effective adsorbent for the removal of congo red from the polluted water.

Keywords: Congo red, Ficus racemosa, thermodynamic, isotherm, SEM, BET, thermodynamic analysis, diffusion model, cancer


How to Cite

Indramahalakshmi, G. (2024). Congo Red Removal from Polluted Water using NaOH Treated Fallen Leaves of Ficus racemosa. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 14(2), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2024/v14i2292

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Robson C. Oliveira, Mauricio C. Palmieri and Oswaldo Garcia Jr. Progress in biomass and bio energy Production, In Tech. 2011;151-176.

Ozdemir S, Kilinc E, Poli A, Nicolaus B, & Guven K, Biosorption of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn and Zn from aqueous solutions by thermophilic bacteria, Geobacillus toebii sub.sp. decanicus and Geobacillus thermoleovorans sub.sp. stromboliensis: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies, Chemical Engineering Journal. 2009;152(1):195-206.

Al Prol AE, El-Azzem MA, Amer A, El-Metwally ME, El-Hamid HTA, El-Moselhy KM, Adsorption of Cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solution on to mango leaves, Asian Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences. 2017; 2:1–11.

Tran HN, You SJ, Hosseini-Bandegharaei A, Chao HP, Mistakes and inconsistencies regarding adsorption of contaminants from aqueous solutions: a critical review, Water Res. 2017; 120:88–116.

Guerrero-Coronilla I, Morales-Barrera L, Villegas-Garrido TL, Cristiani-Urbina E, Biosorption of amaranth dye from aqueous solution by roots, leaves, stems and the whole plant of E. crassipes, Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 2014; 14:1917–1926.

Gupta N, Kushwaha AK, Chattopadhyaya MC, Adsorption studies of Cationic dyes on to Ashoka (Saracaasoca) leaf powder, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 2012;43:604–613.

Jain SN, Gogate PR, Adsorptive removal of acid violet 17 dye from wastewater using biosorbent obtained from NaOH and H2SO4 activation of fallen leaves of Ficus racemosa, J. Mol. Liq. 2017;243:132–143.

Sujitha Ravulapalli, Ravindhranath Kunta, Defluoridation studies using active carbon derived from the barks of Ficus racemosa plant, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry. 2017;193:58–66.

Jain SN, Gogate PR, NaOH treated dead leaves of Ficus racemosa as an efficient biosorbent for Acid Blue 25 removal, International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2017; 14:531-542.

Youssef Aoulad El Hadj Ali, Abdoulaye Demba N’diaye, Driss Fahmi Mohamed Sid’Ahmed Kankou, Mostafa Stitou, Adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution using typha australis leaves as a low cost adsorbent, Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques. 2021; 9(2):534-539.

Aisha Kitemangu, Maheswara Rao Vegi and Nyemaga Masanje Malim, Biosorption of congo red dye from aqueous solution using adsorbent prepared from vangueriainfausta fruit pericarp, Hindawi Adsorption Science & Technology Volume.2023;17.Article ID 4319053.

Maria Harja, Gabriela Buema, Daniel Bucur, Recent advances in removal of Congo Red dye by adsorption using an industrial waste, Scientific reports. 2022; 12:6087.

Mohammad Foroughi-dahr, Hossein Abolghasemi, Mohamad Esmaili, Alireza Shojamoradi and Hooman Fatoorehchi, Fixed-bed adsorption of Congo red on to tea waste in the presence of Fe2O3 nanoparticles: An experimental and modeling study, Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology.2013;3(2):35-44.

Material Safety Data Sheet Congo red MSDS.Available:http://www.sciencelab.com/xMSDS-Congo_red-9927502.

Tunali S, Cabuk A, Akar T. Removal of Lead and Copper Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bacterial Strain Isolated from Soil, Chemical Engineering Journal. 2006; 115(3):203-211.

Langmuir I, The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids. Part I. Solids. Journal of the American Chemical Society.1916; 38:2221-2295.

Aksu Z, Donmez D, A comparative study on the biosorption characteristics of some yeasts for Remazol Blue reactive dye, Chemosphere.2003;50:1075-1083.

Elisane Longhinotti, Fabíola Pozza, Lígia Furlan, Maria de Nazaré de M. Sanchez, Marilene Klug, Mauro CM. Laranjeira and Valfredo T. Fávere, J. Braz. Chem. 1998;9(5).

Freundlich HM. Uber die adsorption in losungen, Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie. 1906; 57A:385–470.

Hall KR, Eagleton LC, Acrivos A, Vermevlem T, Pore and Solid-Diffusion Kinetics in Fixed-Bed Adsorption under Constant-Pattern Conditions. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals. 1966;5: 212-223.

Ho YS, Citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions,

Scientometrics.2004;59:171-177.

Montanher SF, Oliveira EA, Rollemberg MC, Hazard J. Mater. 2005;B117:207-211.

Crini G, Peindy HN, Gimbert F, Robert C, Removal of C. I. Basic Green 4 (Malachite Green) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Using Cyclodextrin-based Adsorbent: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies, Separation and Purification Technology.2007;53:97–110.

Xu X, Li Q, Cui H, Pang J, Sun L, An H, Zhai J, Adsorption of fluoride from aqueous solution on magnesia-loaded fly ash cenospheres desalination.2011;272:233–239.

Ramanaiah SV, Mohan SV, Rajkumar B, Sarma PN, Monitoring of Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater of Prakasham District in India: Correlation with Physico-Chemical Parameters, Journal of Environmental Science & Engineering. 2006;48:129–134.

Ismat H. Ali and Alrafai HA, Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies on biosorption of chromium(VI) by using activated carbon from leaves of Ficus nitida, Chemistry Central Journal. 2016;10:36.

Chen N, Zhang Z, Feng C, Li M, Zhu D, Chen R, Sugiura N, An excellent fluoride sorption behavior of ceramic adsorbent, J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;183:460–465.

Qiu H, Lv L, Pan B, Zhang Q, Zhang W, Zhang, Q, Critical review in adsorption kinetic models, Journal of Zhejiang Univ.Sci. A.2009;10:716–724.

Hameed BH. Spent tea leaves: A new non conventional and low cost adsorbent for removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions. J Hazard Mater 2009; 161:753-759.

Repo E, Warchol JK, Kurniawan TA, Sillanpää M, Adsorption of Co(II) and Ni(II) by EDTA- and/or DTPA-modified chitosan: kinetic and equilibrium modeling. Chem. Eng. J. 2010;161:73–82.

Chen Y, Hu J, Wang J, Kinetics and thermodynamics of Cu(II) biosorption on to a novel magnetic chitosan composite bead Environ. Technol. 2012;33:2345–2351.

Unlu N, Ersoz M, Removal of heavy metal ions by using dithiocarbamated-sporopollenin, Sep. Purif. Technol. 2007;52:461–469.

Baraka A, Hall PJ, Heslop MJ, Preparation and characterization of melamine–formaldehyde–DTPA chelating resin and its use as an adsorbent for heavy metals removal from wastewater, React. Funct. Polym. 2007;67:585–600.