Extraction and Evaluation of a Saponin-base Surfactant from Cissus populnea Plant as an Emulsifying Agent

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I. I. Nkafamiya
J. T. Honda
J. E. Eneche
M. Haruna

Abstract

The surfactant properties of Cissus populnea plant which has been locally recognized as a natural surfactant was assessed in this work. The defatted surfactant extract from the leave, root and stem-bark of Cissus populnea was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. IR absorption bands indicate the quantitative presence of saponin in the extract. Determination of the surfactant properties of Cissus populnea leaves, root and the stem-bark extract was done by measuring the emulsion formation/ capacity. This was done at different concentration (1 g/dm3, 2 g/dm3, 4 g/dm3). The results obtained were compared using same concentrations of OMO (a commercial/synthetic surfactant manufactured by lever Brother Nigeria). Emulsion formation/capacity for of the Cissus populnea leave, root and stem-bark extract show better emulsification characteristics than OMO. Creaming stability decreases in all the surfactant, but more rapidly in commercial detergent. Within 1 and 48 hours, the emulsion formation/ capacity for 1 g/dm3 gave 97.3% - 67.1%, 92.0% - 72%, 77.0% - 58.3%, 88.3%, 2 g/dm3 94.2% - 70.0%, 90.5% - 80.3%, 80.2% - 53.3%, 88.3% - 60.0%, while for 4 g/dm3 gave 90.63% - 68.3%, 98.0% - 50.3%, 91.3% - 66.7%, 87.5% - 64.1% for C. populnea leave, root and stem-bark and OMO respectively. The FTIR absorption band at 2364.04 cm-1 and 2922.49 cm-1, 2364.50 cm-1 and 2316.86 cm-1 and the small peaks at 1008.89 cm-1 and 1045.77 cm-1 on the leave, root and stem-bark extracts respectively, were suggested to C-H stretching, C=C stretching bands and C-O stretching peak and the carboxyl group at 1734.59 cm-1, 1615.13 cm-1 for crude and extracted saponin respectively. These present C. populnea leave, root and stem-bark extract which is a natural surfactant, with higher formation/emulsifying efficiency compared to OMO at different concentration evaluated. This favourable characteristic is associated with saponin content of C. populnea leave, root and stem-bark extract. This work therefore contributively explored the potentials of C. populnea extract as a foaming, emulsifying, wetting and cleansing agent.

Keywords:
Cissus populnea, natural surfactant, saponin, emulsion formation/capacity

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How to Cite
I. Nkafamiya, I., T. Honda, J., E. Eneche, J., & Haruna, M. (2018). Extraction and Evaluation of a Saponin-base Surfactant from Cissus populnea Plant as an Emulsifying Agent. Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences, 4(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.9734/AJOCS/2018/39509
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Original Research Article