Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences (ISSN: 2456-7795)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/AJOCS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of Chemical Sciences. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences) (Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences) Wed, 21 Oct 2020 04:14:40 +0000 OJS 60 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Blend of Lignicellulosic Materials for Reducing Sugar Production: Screening of Significant Process Factors <p>The screening of the process parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of a blend of two lignocellulosic materials - corn cob (CC) and deseeded fluted pumpkin fruit (DFPF) using <em>Trichoderma reesei</em> was the focus of the present study. Four process parameters – time, temperature, substrate blend ratio and pH were screened for statistical significance using a 4 x 4 matrix of Graeco-Latin square design of experiment. The reducing sugar yield was determined using the dinitrosalisylic acid (DNS) method and maximum reducing sugar yield of 57.92mg/ml obtained in 2days at 40<sup>o</sup>C, blend ratio of 0.2:0.8 (CC:DFPF) and pH 5.5. Result of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) obtained showed that with 3 degrees of freedom and 6 residual degree of freedom at 95% confidence level (i.e. 0.05 significance), time, temperature and substrate blend ratio significantly affected the enzymatic hydrolysis process whereas the effect of pH was not significant. However, only time was significant at 99% confidence level (0.01 significance) while temperature, substrate blend ratio and pH were not significant. This study has highlighted the significant factors among the process variables in emzymatic hydrolysis of a blend of CC and DFPF.</p> Bathlomew Chukwudi Amadi, Philomena Kañulia Igbokwe, Chijioke Elijah Onu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical Evaluation of the Oil Extracted from Anacardium occidentale Almonds for Energy Use <p>The present study aimed at exploring the potential of producing biofuels from unconventional vegetable oils extracted from <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> kernels. Accordingly, oils were extracted from <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> kernels and subjected to physical and chemical characterization namely: density; lower calorific value (PCI); quality indexes; fatty acid profile, viscosity using French and ISO standards.</p> <p>Results revealed that <em>Anacardium occidentale</em> almonds have a lipidic potential of 52.54%, the transesterification reaction yield was 78.28%. As for the quality indices of the vegetable oil: acidity (˃1%); saponification index (205.29 mg KOH/g-oil); peroxide value (8.08 meq O2/kg-oil) and iodine value (108.84 mg iodine/g-oil) were considerably reduced for biodiesel. The vegetable oil was unsaturated type with the predominance of oleic acid (43.86%). The fuel characteristics of the oil obtained were: acidity (2.89%), density at 40°C (0.796 g/cm<sup>3</sup>) cetane number (41.47). The raw extracted oil is not usable as fuel for engine due to its very high viscosity ranging 30.69 mm<sup>2</sup>/s. As a consequence, a prior chemical treatment is necessary to reduce the viscosity.&nbsp;</p> <p>Our results provided an insight on the energetic potential of the investigated oil, with respect to its use as a source for biodiesel in replacement of the current conventional diesel fuel.</p> Yete Pélagie, Togbe F. C. Alexis, Yovo Franck, Suanon Fidèle, Kouwanou Sagbo Cosme, Wotto D. Valentin, Sohounhloue Dominique ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 22 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metal Levels of Four Rivers in Nkanu West and Nkanu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State Nigeria <p>The physicochemical properties and the concentrations of heavy metals of water samples collected from four different rivers of Nkanu east and west Local Government Areas of Enugu of state Nigeria were investigated because of the prevalent water borne diseases in these localities attributable to the drinking of contaminated water. The water samples were collected from different sites of Esu, Umuekwe, Umuobeagu and Atafu rivers and their physicochemical properties and heavy metal contents were measured. Sampling Stations were selected; samples were collected avoiding contamination from the selected sites in same season, from same depth. On site measurement of parameters was done with the same instruments. Rests of the parameters were measured in Laboratory. Lead (Pb) was present in Esu, Umuekwe, Umuobeagu and Atafu rivers at a concentration of 0.14, 0.03, 0.00 and 0.16 mg/L respectively; Zn was only detected in Esu and Umuobeagu at 0.07 and 0.01 mg/L respectively and cadmium (Cd) concentrations of 0.14, 0.14. 0.08 and 0.08 mg/L respectively. Iron was detected in only Umuekwe river having 0.17 mg/L and Atafu river having 0.21 mg/L while Ni was detected at 3.01, 4.20, 1.20 and 3.83 mg/L respectively. Only Atafu river had Cr at 0.01 mg/L, only Esu river had Co content at 0.05 mg/L, Mn content in Esu, Umuekwe, and Umuobeagu was found to be 0.01, 0.02 and 0.02 mg/L respectively with Atafu river having none. Hg concentration was found to be 0.57, 0.06, 0.42 and 0.82 mg/L for Esu, Umuekwe, Umuobeagu and Atafu rivers respectively. The concentrations of Pb and Cd were higher in all the four samples especially in Esu river as a result of its closeness to construction sites and refuse dump and the concentrations were above the acceptable limits of WHO standard of 0.010 and 0.005 mg/L respectively for drinking water while Hg, Fe, and Ni were found within the W.H.O limits of 0.001, 3.000 and 0.100 mg/L respectively. The rest were below the standard, thus confirming conclusively that the rivers are polluted with the presence of heavy metals.</p> Melford C. Egbujor, Ogechi J. Ogbodo, Jacob A. David, Eramus O. Anieze, Ifeanyi S. Amasiatu, Pius I. Egwuatu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 24 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Partial Purification of a Catalase from an Improved Nigerian Sorghum Grain Variety <p>Catalases are key components of cellular detoxification pathways that prevent the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals through catalyzing the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. Their presence in brewery grains prevent the inactivation of important brewery enzymes and also stop lipid peroxidation. To determine their occurrence and establish some of its properties in sorghum, which has become as an important brewery grain similar to barley, crude catalase was obtained from a sorghum grain variety. Preliminary purification of catalase from the sorghum grain variety used, NRL-3, showed that the enzyme was purified 3.2-fold from the crude protein to give a 49% yield of the partially purified enzyme, with a final specific activity of 32 Umg-<sup>1</sup> proteins. There was also a positive indication of sorghum catalase presence on SDS PAGE with positive bands occurring between the range of 48-62 kDa. Therefore, the molecular weight of sorghum catalase most likely falls within the two bands. The enzyme showed a narrow pH range with optimum activity occurring at pH 7. Similarly, its optimum activity temperature occurred at 40°C.&nbsp; This work is the first reported attempt at purifying catalase from sorghum.</p> C. I. Nnamchi, B. C. Nwanguma, O. C. Amadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 07 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Walnut Shell Modified by Thionyl Chloride and Triethylamine: Synthesis and Characterization <p>A novel modified walnut shell (TWNS) was prepared through sequentially reacting the walnut shell (WNS) with thionyl chloride and triethylamine in N-methyl pyrrolidone to remove Reactive Brilliant Blue from dye wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the TWNS. The effects of different experimental conditions such as the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the dosage of thionyl chloride and triethylamine on the quaternary ammonium grafting percentage of TWNS have been studied. The results reveal the quaternary ammonium grafting percentage (<em>Y</em>) is up to 18.37% when the dosage of thionyl chloride (<em>V</em><sub>1</sub>) is 35 mL, the reaction time (<em>t</em><sub>1</sub>) is 3 h in the first step reaction; the dosage of triethylamine (<em>V</em><sub>2</sub>) is 40 mL, the reaction temperature (<em>T</em>) is 80°C and the reaction time (<em>t</em><sub>2</sub>) is 12 h in the second step reaction.</p> Zhijie Mao, Zuoxiang Zeng, Weilan Xue, Ying Wang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 23 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000